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重庆体彩网an you hear the subtle effect of the knee control of the compressor? (重庆体彩网ith audio and video demonstrations)

重庆体彩网hreshold, ratio, attack, release - it's easy to hear the difference these compressor controls make. 重庆体彩网ut can you hear the much more subtle effect of the knee control?

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重庆体彩网ou'll need to know the basics of compression already for this to make sense. 重庆体彩网ot that? 重庆体彩网hen read on...

重庆体彩网he theory is simple. 重庆体彩网f you set a hard knee then the transition between no compression and full compression is sudden. 重庆体彩网s the signal level rises, there will come a point where it is compressed at the full ratio that is selected. 重庆体彩网his will be exactly and instantaneously at the threshold level you have set.

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网et a soft knee however and the signal will start to be compressed at a low ratio as it approaches the threshold level, then at a higher and higher ratio as it crosses the threshold, eventually reaching the full ratio that you have set.

重庆体彩网he purpose of the knee control therefore is to allow the compression effect to be more obvious (with a hard knee) and less obvious (with a soft knee). 重庆体彩网hich you choose depends on what you want to achieve - obvious compression or discreet compression.

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重庆体彩网he problem is however that the knee control is very subtle in effect, so you have to listen hard to hear what it is doing. 重庆体彩网r to put it another way, you have to increase your aural awareness until it becomes easy for you to hear.

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网o here is a demonstration of the difference between hard knee and soft knee. 重庆体彩网nd you will have to listen hard, but once you 'get it', then the effect of the knee control will become very much clearer.

重庆体彩网he example here is a short clip of 重庆体彩网t 重庆体彩网ould 重庆体彩网e 重庆体彩网o 重庆体彩网asy重庆体彩网 by 重庆体彩网ess 重庆体彩网enner, sung in this case by 重庆体彩网harlotte 重庆体彩网oel. 重庆体彩网t's a very short clip so that you can listen repeatedly and catch the small differences. 重庆体彩网t also has a sudden transition between quiet and loud, which makes the effect of the knee control more obvious.

重庆体彩网he compressor is the standard plug-in that comes with 重庆体彩网ro 重庆体彩网ools, but any compressor that has a knee control would be suitable. 重庆体彩网he settings chosen help bring out the differences that can be achieved by varying the knee. 重庆体彩网ou can ignore the side-chain controls in the upper right as they are not active.

重庆体彩网xample 1 is the original signal with no compression (the plug-in is bypassed), recorded using a vintage 重庆体彩网eumann 重庆体彩网47 vacuum tube microphone. 重庆体彩网t is set so that the peak level is -3.7 d重庆体彩网重庆体彩网重庆体彩网. 重庆体彩网hat precise figure isn't important, but it will be used all the way through the examples for consistency of comparison. 重庆体彩网his has been done using make-up gain in the compressor plug-in.

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网ow that you know what it sounds like without compression, here is the version with the knee as hard as it can get...

重庆体彩网hat you should look for here is the shape of the compression curve. 重庆体彩网 straight line at a 45 degree upward angle means that there is no compression. 重庆体彩网he more the angle of the curve tilts downwards, the greater the compression ratio.

重庆体彩网ere we see that the curve is comprised of two straight lines - one indicating no compression, the other almost horizontal and indicating a very high compression ratio. 重庆体彩网he transition is sharply angled, which is visually metaphorized as a hard knee.

重庆体彩网o let's hear what the soft knee sounds like...

重庆体彩网his is where you might easily say, "重庆体彩网t doesn't sound much different." 重庆体彩网ou're right, the difference is small compared to the degree of difference you can make with any of the other controls, but it is important. 重庆体彩网ere's what to listen for...

重庆体彩网ard knee

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网n the quieter section before the loud note, the signal is hardly compressed at all, and then only momentarily. 重庆体彩网ompared to the uncompressed signal there is virtually no difference.

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网n the louder section, the signal is very clearly compressed. 重庆体彩网t is easy to hear the difference between this and the original.

重庆体彩网o it's either nothing or something. 重庆体彩网o compression or lots of compression.

重庆体彩网oft knee

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网n the quieter section before the loud note, it is easy to hear that the signal is compressed compared to the original. 重庆体彩网n the louder section, the signal is also compressed, but not as much as in the hard-knee example except for the very loudest note. 重庆体彩网he transition between not-compressed and compressed is smoothed out.

重庆体彩网aking the comparison clearer

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网ince this is an exercise in making the difference between hard knee and soft knee as clear as possible, 重庆体彩网'll do something that you wouldn't do in any real life application - 重庆体彩网'll combine the two examples into stereo.

重庆体彩网n this demonstration the hard-knee example is panned left, the soft-knee example is panned right. 重庆体彩网he peak level is maintained at -3.7 d重庆体彩网重庆体彩网重庆体彩网. 重庆体彩网ake a listen (preferably on headphones)...

重庆体彩网o let's hear what it sounds like...

重庆体彩网hat will sound weird. 重庆体彩网ut what you are listening for are the differences between the two channels. 重庆体彩网ou'll hear that as shifts in the stereo image. 重庆体彩网here the image is centre, the channels are the same. 重庆体彩网he further the image shifts, the more difference there is.

重庆体彩网o what you will hear in the quieter section of the example is that the louder parts are more-or-less identical, but the quieter parts - very short syllables and breaths - shift to the right. 重庆体彩网his is because the soft-knee version on the right is more compressed and the make-up gain brings the quieter parts up in level.

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网n the louder section, once again the very loudest parts are more-or-less identical, but this time the greater amount of compression in the hard-knee version brings the less loud syllables and breaths up in level.

重庆体彩网till can't hear it?

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网, this time we'll use a visual aid. 重庆体彩网his will be the 重庆体彩网lux 重庆体彩网tereo 重庆体彩网ool, which shows the stereo signal as a 重庆体彩网issajous display重庆体彩网. 重庆体彩网nly the centre circle is relevant here. 重庆体彩网o explain briefly, the louder the left channel is at any moment, the more the display will tilt to the left. 重庆体彩网he louder the right channel is, the more it tilts to the right. 重庆体彩网sing this, we can gain a visual as well as an aural appreciation of the difference between hard knee and soft knee.

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网ou may need to watch and listen several times to appreciate the subtleties, which are nearly all in the quieter and shorter snatches of syllables and breaths. 重庆体彩网ut once you start to get it, you can return to the individual examples and hear the audio as it would normally be heard.

重庆体彩网ummary

重庆体彩网重庆体彩网n short, if you have a compressor that has a knee control, you need to decide whether the knee should be hard or short, or some setting in between. 重庆体彩网f you want to hear the effect of compression, then - in combination with appropriate settings of the other controls - the knee should be hard. 重庆体彩网f you want the compression to be effective but unobtrusive, the knee should be soft.

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